Myocardial infarction (heart attack) means the sudden death of a certain area of the heart muscle or the irreversible damage to the heart muscle caused by a loss of blood flow to the heart.


  • Pain in the heart area or behind the sternum (pressure, crushing, tightening).
  • Pain usually spreads to left hand, shoulder, neck, jaw, numbness of left or both hands fingers occurs.
  • Dyspnoea.
  • Nausea.
  • Cold sweat.
  • Vomiting.
  • Fear of death.
  • Fainting.


  • Elevated arterial blood pressure.
  • Excessive cholesterol level in blood (dyslipidemia).
  • Smoking.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Constant stress.
  • Frequent fatigue.
  • Low physical activity.
  • Obesity.
  • Genetic predisposition to cardiovascular disease.
  • Gender (men get sick more often).


  • Medical.
  • Cardiovascular catheterisation  and angioplasty, stenting.
  • Cardiovascular surgery (bypass grafting). 

In the event of a heart attack, the cardiologist advises: 

  • Immediately call an ambulance.
  • Lay a person down.
  • If possible, give nitro-glycerine (0.5 mg tablet placed under the tongue every 5 minutes, but not more than 3 tablets, ie no more than 1.5 mg dose), aspirin (160-325 mg).